Behaviour Based Safety (BBS), is a process that informs management and employees of the overall safety of the workplace through safety observations. Behaviour-based safety is a psychological approach to improve human behaviour for the purpose of reducing accidents. BBS program is a great way to change an organization’s safety culture if they did it correctly. Behaviour Based Safety Training is a positive approach toward a safe work culture.
In the Behaviour-based safety approach, ‘safe behaviours’ are targeted, decided and explained to the workers. Then the performance of these behaviours is observed. It is also called performance management. Feedback is obtained and a reduction in accident rate is measured. The goal of this type of program is to correct unsafe behaviours throughout the entire company – and hold every person responsible for their actions.
Behavioural psychology is used to promote safety at work. Behaviour-based safety (BBS) approach proceeds as under:
- Observing unsafe behaviours or acts of the workers in the organisation and collecting then data.
- Defining a set of model behaviours to reduce the unsafe acts.
- To give short duration training to workers regarding their unsafe acts, management observations and explaining safe (model) behaviours.
- Observing new (improved) behaviours and recording their consistency and frequency.
- Getting feedback and supporting new behaviours.
- Data collected is used for recognition, problem solving and continuous improvement.
Human factors contributing to accidents:-
- Physical factors: – These are the physical fitness of an individual estimated from maximum oxygen uptake, capacity, sex, body build, age muscular work, sickness, disease, environmental heat load (strain), etc. A worker who is physically fit performs well and less susceptible to an accident though the task requires more physical work. Physical fitness is necessary to select a person for accident prevention. Good nutrition training and skill increase, work capacity, and power of performance for safety.
- Psychological factors: – They are attitude, aptitude, frustration, conflict, morale, motivation, and accident proneness mental capacity, memory, ability to pay attention to machine acceptance of risk, knowledge, responsibility, alertness, nervousness, fear, and carelessness. The difference of these factors in person causes the individual differences.
- Physical situation factor: – They are physical workload and stress, working hours, work station design, tool, and equipment design, hazardous nature, and pollution of chemicals like splash, gases, dust, and fumes. Long working hours, work without rest internal are physical factors that can lead to injuries.
Behaviour-based Safety Management
Management control for implementing the above BBS concept includes the following techniques:
- The design team of selected workers to record observations, develop support materials, and provide training.
- Identify elements or targets and decide steps to focus on each of them.
- Organize a full-day meeting instead of a one or two hours meeting to plan the process after full discussion.
- Design own steps instead of copying the same from other companies.
- Do not waste time completing the training of all the workers. Start implementation after training some 20% workers and continue training for others. Thus the time cycle will begin soon to observe the result.
- Avoid unnecessary training of team members. Those who are already trained need not require training.