Plant siting criteria:
- Land availability and its cost.
- Availability of raw material.
- Availability of labour.
- Availability of infrastructure.
- Access to market.
- Transport facilities.
- Drinking and process water facilities.
- Sewage and drainage facility.
- A place for solid and liquid waste disposal.
- Interlinking with other plants.
- Surrounding population density and distance from the public.
- Distance from highway and railway and from transportation centers.
- Suitability of climate, environment, and factors related to ecology, geology, meteorology, micro, and macro biology.
- Government policy advantages like subsidies, incentives, and zoning if prescribed.
- Other techno-economic criteria.
- Standards for quality of environment laid down for an area.
- Maximum allowable limits of pollutants including noise for an area.
- Likely emission from the proposed industry.
- Topographic and climatic features of an area.
- Environmentally compatible land use.
- Biological diversity of the area to be preserved.
- The adverse environmental impact is likely to be caused by the industry. Environmental Impact Assessment is required.
- Proximity to a legally protected area.
- Proximity to human settlements.
- Any other relevant factor-like the procedure of prohibition.
- No forest land shall be converted into non-forest activity for the sustenance of the industry.
- No prime agricultural land shall be converted into an industrial site.
- Within the acquired site the industry must locate itself at the lowest location to remain obscured from general sight.
- Land acquired shall be sufficiently large to provide space for appropriate treatment of wastewater still left for treatment after maximum possible reuse and recycle. Reclaimed (treated) wastewater should be used to raise the green belt and to create a water body for aesthetics, recreation and if possible, for aquaculture. The greenbelt shall be ½ K.M. wide around the battery limit of the industry. For industry having odour problem, it shall be 1 K.M. wide.
- The greenbelt between two adjoining large-scale industries shall be 1 K.M. Green belt should also be provided within factory premises.
- Enough space should be provided for the storage of solid waste so that these could be available for possible reuse.
- Layout and form of industry, that may come up in the area must conform to the landscape of the area without affecting the scenic features of that place.
- Associated township of the industry must be created at a space having a physiographic barrier between the industry and the township.
- Each industry is required to maintain three ambient air quality measuring stations within 120-degree angle between stations.
Principles of plant layout:
The plant layout should be properly planned to allow smooth flow and efficient use of men, materials, methods, processes, time cycle, etc., and should allow good and safe working conditions to prevent any accident at work.
General Principles for good Layout are:
- Enough workspace (2 m squires per person) should be provided for workers to work without restriction.
- Proper roads, walkways, etc. should be provided for free passage of men and materials to avoid delay and obstruction.
- Sufficient doors, windows, ventilators, and open space must be provided for good ventilation and lighting.
- Installation of machinery, floors, stairs, lifting machines, electric wiring, etc. must be done to ensure safety. allow at least 1 M space around each other.
- Keep the handling of the materials to the minimum. Use mechanical means to reduce manual strain.
- Provide safe means of access to all workplaces.
- Provide safe transport facilities for men and materials.
- Provide adequate emergency exits.
- Purchase and arrange in orderly manner machines and equipment with built-in safety.
- Isolate high noise, vibration, fire, explosion, and toxic hazards. Design a workbench, table, booth, roof, ladder, platform, sheet, support, etc. with safety standards to avoid such hazards.
- Allow space for future expansion.
- Provide repair and maintenance workshops, welfare, training, and education facilities.
- Use appropriate colors, notices, signs, labels, posters, etc. for safety.
- Provide easy locations of fire alarms, fire fighting equipment, medical center, safety office, etc.
- Provide and maintain good housekeeping.
Plant layout and design from a safety point:
- Safe design and construction using safety standards and good engineering practices.
- Statutory requirements for plant layout and design.
- Containment of leakage and accidents.
- Segregation of different risks.
- Safe storage, process, utilities, and waste disposal design.
- Safe control room location and design.
- Emergency control devices.
- Fire fighting and gas leak control facilities. Ample water storage.
- Auto controls, alarms, trips, interlocks, and necessary safety devices.
- Railings and guarding at chances of fall, cross over, and on moving machinery.
- Roads of sufficient width and signs.
- Safe loading and unloading, transport, and piping facilities.
- Security round the clock.
- Wind direction and speed indicator with a recorder to know wind direction and speed.
- First aid center and ambulance van.
Need for planning and Follow up:
- Need of planning for safety and health and ‘safety engineering’ approach in design, planning, and construction of a new plant or new alteration or addition is basic and most essential because:
- General efficiency and safety in industrial activities can be greatly increased thereby.
- Accidents and occupational diseases can be prevented from the earliest days.
- Cost-saving factors can be considered by effective use of floor area, providing ample space for men, materials, and machines, reducing the cost of material handling, reducing the time of work or process, and making efficient use of resources, personnel, and equipment, etc.
- An efficient flow of work is maintained.
- The safety and comfort of people are achieved by considering ergonomic aspects.
Safety and Layout Engineer must take into account the following:
- Products and product layout.
- Raw materials, processes, and their layout.
- Size and type of site and building.
- Machinery, vessels, and equipment required.
- Assessment of manpower required.
- Relationships between the departments.
- Process flow chart.
- String and flow diagrams.
- Templates and scale models.
- Drawings and plot plans, and
- Travel chart etc.
- As the need for planning is important, follow-up action according to that planning is equally important.
- Without follow up no planning can be executed. Therefore distinct responsibilities should be assigned to different persons to implement the follow-up actions of every step or stage decided in planning.
- Feedback should be received for correction or addition if required and the work should be completed within the stipulated time period.
- All points of safety, health, environmental and ergonomic factors should be included from the built-in-stage.
- If this follow-up is missed in the initial stage, later follow-up may become continuous and costly.
Ergonomic consideration for plant design and Layout :
Important ergonomic factors to be considered in plant layout and design include :
- Free space (80 to 100 cm) around each machine for easy and safe movement.
- No overcrowding. Breathing space of 14.2 m” per worker (max height 4.2 m).
- Ventilation opening -15% of the floor area minimum. Window bottom height I meter or less from the working floor for natural ventilation.
- A traversing part or materials carried by machinery should not approach within 50 cm of any fixed structure which is not part of the machine.
- Suitable platforms, safe means of access, and lifting appliance suspension points should be provided to facilitate cleaning and maintenance work.
- Height and position of seats, valves, gauges, indicators, displays, meters, knobs, controls, handles, switches, pushbuttons, brakes, notices, etc. should be suitable to the operators. Safe manual lifting‘ methods should be utilized.