Water Pollution

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Deterioration of physical, chemical, biological characteristics of water through natural & anthropogenic activities to such an extent that it becomes harmful to human beings, plants &animals.

Source of water pollution:

  1. Point source
  2. Diffused source

Point sources are those which discharge pollutants from specific locations (pipeline, sewers) to water bodies& common sources are (i) industries (ii)sewage treatment plants (iii) landfills (iv)hazardous waste sites (v)oil storage tanks.

Non-point or diffused site – there are widely scattered & discharged pollutants over large areas. Ex:-

  1. Agricultural field
  2. Steam water urban street.

Types of Water Pollutants

On the basics of sources

  1. Industrial pollutants- Pollutant chlorides, sulphides, carbonate, nitrites retreats of heavy metals such as mercury, lead lime, arsenic etc.
  2. Agricultural pollutants- pesticides, insecticides, synthetic chemical compounds, plant remains.
  3. Urban pollutants– automobile exhaust, lime &chemical fertilizers used in lowers, chemical for urban sewage, house hold sew rope.
  4. Natural pollutant- volcanic dusts, sediments due to weathering, landslides debris, decayed organic matters.

On the basics of physical and chemical characteristics

  1. Physical pollutants- pollutant changing the physical characteristics- ex color, turbidity, sediments, oil, grease contact, dissolved solids.
  2. Chemical pollutant- chlorides, sulfides sulfates, carbonates, nitrates of heavy metals ,mercury ,leads, cadmium, pesticides, insecticides& other chemical compounds.   

On the basis of degradation.

  1. Degradable pollutants- the pollution can be broken down by biological means.
  2. Non (bio) degradable pollutants- chemical pollutants & solid toxic substance .

General effect of water pollution

  1. Spreading the epidemics. Ex Chorale, Typhoid etc.
  2. Water contaminated by asbestos fiber causes lung cancer and stomach diseases.
  3. Death of aquatic organization.
  4. Decreases agricultural productivity.
  5. Kill soil micro organism.
  6. Increase alkalinity of Soil.
  7. Increase in concentration of inorganic & organic nutrients causes eutrophication. Leads to rapid growth of plant and animals beyond control.
  8. Due to oil leakage in sea water causes ecological disaster in littoral ecosystem due mass death of sea organism.

Water pollution Control Measures

  1. Water treatment plant in industry.
  2. Sewage treatment plant in urban body.
Water pollution 1

Causes of contamination of Ground water

  1. Industrial waste: hazardous effluents released from industries contains heavy metals, ion &organic &inorganic species .these contaminate ground water.
  2. Agricultural waste: excessive use of fertilizer, pesticides and insecticides add lot of chemical to ground water.
  3. Domestic waste: domestic wastes add to pathogenic organism, oxygen demanding organism (both chemicals and biological) & solids to ground water.
  4. Run off from urban areas: rapid urbanization releases a lot of effluents containing oils, greases, heavy metal, detergents &etc.

Effect on ecosystem

Effect on human being

  1. Polluted ground water helps in spreading of epidemics, chronic diseases like typhoid, dysentery, diarrhea &etc.
  2. Water contaminated with toxic metals like tig, pb, cd, cr, cu and cyanides causes stomach &skin disease.
  3. Polluted ground water contaminated with fibers (asbestos) causes fatal disease.

Effect on plants

  1. Polluted ground water disturbs plant metabolism severely and has adverse effect on ecosystem.
  2. Contaminated ground water acidity or alkalinity of soil.
  3. Decreases soil fertility by sculling back& microorganism.
  4. Severely damage crop productivity.

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